Tuesday, September 29, 2020

 Homeopathic remedies for Chickungunya

Bryonia: Pain all over the body, but not deep in the bones. wants to lie quietly. thirst qualities of water of long intervals.

Eupatorium perf: An excellent remedy for pains go deep into the bones. vomiting and restlessness.

Rhus Tox: Is indicated when muscular pain.

Varatrum viride: High temperature with great variation.

Causticum: High fever, flushed face, no chillness much prostration , could hardly get out of the bed.

Apis Mel: Chill with sudden violent vomiting. The Fever comes in the between 6 and 7pm.




Saturday, September 26, 2020

Chickungunya Fever (Epidemic Polyarthritis)

                                            Chickungunya Fever



     It is an acute infectious disease, caused by Chickungunya virus, transmitted by the bite of Infective, female added mosquito. Clinically characterized by sudden onset of fever associated with chills, severe myalgia, Malaise, polyarthritis, and often associated with rashes with or without mild itching. It is resemble with dengue fever. In India, endemic occurs in Karnataka, Maharashtra, Tamil Nada and Andhra Pradesh during March to August 2006. Seen mainly in Africa, Pakistan, India south eat Asia Philliphiens




Causative agent:
The organism Chickungunya virus, it belongs to Group A antiviruses. It is killed by common disinfectant, moist heat and drying. 

Reservoir:
It is a Disease of human beings only. There is no animal reservoir. There is no carrier state also. 

Transmission: 
Chickungunya Fever transmitted from person to person, by the bite of Infective, female, aedes mosquito.

Vector:
The Chief vector is aedes aegypti. 

Breeding Place: 
Aedes aegypti breeds in water collected in containers like tumblers, coconut-shell, bottles, broken tins,  air-coolers, tree holes and such others in and around 4th he houses. 




Biting time:
They bite during early hours of the morning 6 to 9 am and in evening 3pm to 6pm.  They are aggressive day biters.

Incubation period:
Incubation period is 10 to 12 days. In case of aedes aegypti once the mosquito become Infective, it remains Infective throughout life, whomsoever it bites, transmits the Disease. This is how several members of the same family members simultaneously affected. 
The lifespan of the mosquito is about 3 weeks.
Clinical features:
  • Incubation period is 1 to 2 weeks.
  • Sudden onset of chills 
  • Fever(103 - 104 F) 
  • Headache 
  • Nausea 
  • Severe muscular pain
  • Joints pain
  • Joints swollen and painful to touch 
  • Maculopapular rashes
  • Palatal exanthemas 
  • Hemorrhage is rare and mortality is rare. 


 



Management:
      • Symptomatic treatment 
      • Analgesics 
      • Antihistaminics 
      • Bed rest

Prevention and control



 


  1. To remove the water containers if any. 
  2. To keep the air coolers clean and dry once a week and to remove the water if not used.
  3. To use mosquitoes curtain,  if habituated to sleep in afternoon or apply mosquito repellent.
  4. Use mosquitoes net during sleep.\
To maintain the sanitation in and around the house.

Homeopathic remedies for Chickungunya:

Bryonia: Pain all over the body, but not deep in the bones. wants to lie quietly. thirst qualities of water of long intervals.

Eupatorium perf: An excellent remedy for pains go deep into the bones. vomiting and restlessness.

Rhus Tox: Is indicated when muscular pain.

Varatrum viride: High temperature with great variation.

Causticum: High fever, flushed face, no chillness much prostration , could hardly get out of the bed.

Apis Mel: Chill with sudden violent vomiting. The Fever comes in the between 6 and 7pm.





Health problems of Travelers

                                    Health problems of Travelers

    1. Commonest health problems are diarrhea and vomiting.
    2. They are separated from familiar and accessible sources of medical care. 
    3. They are exposed of various forms of stress,  which reduces their resistance and makes them susceptible. For example over crowding, long hours of waiting, disruption of eating habits, change the climate.
    4. They are subject to disorder induced by travel such as motion sickness, nausea,  fatigue, insomnia, and jet lag. 
    5. They are exposed to diseases which are not covered by international Health Regulations e.g. malaria, typhoid, AIDS, STDs, viral hepatitis, dengue fever, etc. 
    6. Younger travelers are at the greater risk than the older ones. 
    7. The greater the climatic and cultural contrast between the native country and the destination country, higher risk. 

Health advice to Travelers


            Health advice to travelers 


They should:

  • Avoid take contaminated food and water. They must use fresh cook food and drink fresh water.
  • Avoid to taking bath with polluted water to prevent eyes or ears infection.
  • Use masks in crowded area and polluted area. Especially cotton mask use. 
  • Use boiled and cooled water for drinking. Mineral water bottle should be used. To prevent infection of stomach.
  • Take 3 doses of Hepatitis B Vaccine with schedule of 0, 1 and 6 months.
  • Avoid Sex with other partners or limit to a single. Protect from sexual transmitted diseases, only sex done with faithful uninfected partner.
  • Take active immunization against tetanus after every 6 months.
  • Carry medical kit containing disinfectant, dressing cloth, ORS packets, sun cream,  mosquito repellent and those drugs which are taking regularly. 
  • Use disposable syringes and needles whenever injection is essential.
  • Use condoms if partner unknown.
  • Produce valid certificate of vaccination against yellow fever.
  • Use mosquitoes net during sleep.
  •  Carry "Health Card" with them.


Thursday, September 24, 2020

Chickenpox ( Varicella; Waterpox)

                          
                                Chickenpox


       Chickenpox also known as varicella and water pox. It is an acute highly infectious disease, caused by varicella-zoster virus transmitted by droplet infection. Clinically characterized by fever, mild personal symptoms followed by appearance of rashes. It is not a fatal disease. 
        It is a worldwide Disease occurs both epidemic or endemic form. 

 


                   Etiological agent:

        The causative agent is varicella-zoster virus. It is a DNA virus. 
 
Source of infection: 
      Usually in case of chickenpox no subclinical cases,  no carrier state, no animals reservoirs. 
 
Infective Material:
      It is about one week e.g. one or two days before the appearance of rashes to 4 to 5 days after rashes. The patient is no longer infectious, because the virus tend disappear from the lesions.  
 
Secondary attack rate:
     Chickenpox is highly infectious to much so, The secondary attack rate is 90%. 
 
Host Factors: 
    • Age incidence: Chickenpox is common in young child below 10 years of age. But also occur in adults, it is usually severe. 
    • Sex incidence: Equal ratio in both sexes.
    • Immunity: one  attack confers lifelong immunity. Second attack rare.  Cell mediated immunity is the one which prevents the reoccurrence.
    • Pregnancy: 
          if pregnant mother effect in first trimester, in 3% cases, the fetus gets the intra-uterine in infection which causes severe damage, weight loss, Micro-ophthalmic, choroidoretintis, cataract, hypo tonicity, and zoster lesion or scars. A condition called " Congenital Varicella syndrome".
         If mother get infection during few days of delivery and not yet delvoped antibodies. The new born develop sign of chickenpox pox and it will be very severe.  
 

                    Environment Factors

         Chickenpox mostly occur in summer and overcrowded area.  
 
Mode of transmission  
           Chickenpox mostly transmitted through Droplet or Droplet nuclei. Transplecntal transmission occurs only in 3% cases. 

             Pathology and Pathogenesis  

       Chickenpox mainly enter in the through respiratory route.  Than virus circulate in blood. Then ballooning degeneration of the cells. Scabs separate within 8 to 10 days without leaving pock marks. 
 
Incubation period: 
       It is about 10 to 15 days but varies from 1 to 3 weeks. 
 
Clinical features: 
 
The clinical course occurs in two stages. 
A. Prodromal stage 
B. Exanthematous stage
A. Prodromal stage: sign and symptoms 
        • Mild fever 
        • Myalgia 
        • malaise




 

 
Lasts for 2 or 3 days. 
B. Exanthematous stage:
      1. This eruptive stage is characterized by appearance of rashes on the body next day to fever. 
      2. The vesicles look like "water drop" on the skin. Rashes appear daily for 4 to 5 days.

 

      1. Lesions can occur in the mouth, forming ulcers also seen in tympanic membrane, vagina and cornea. Scabs are remain for 3 weeks than fall off. Mild discoloration last of few weeks than skin become normal.
Complication: 
 
          Chickenpox is mild disease but fatal in newborn. Complication occur in only 5%cases varicella pneumonia, encephalitis, hemorrhage. 
 
Management: 
 
Isolated and managed symptomatically with analgesics, antipyretics,  soothing ointments. 
Prevention: 
 
         Active and passive immunization.




Wednesday, September 23, 2020

Homeopathic Medicine for Jaundice

           Homeopathic Medicine For Jaundice

Sulphur: Always treatment start from this remedy. it should be used in 200 potency.

Chelidonium: This should follow  sulphur after one day. it is specific remedy for jaundice. yellowish conjunctiva; bitter taste; deep red color of tongue; brown red urine; tenderness of liver on pressure and light clay colored stool.

Chionanthus; Catarrhal jaundice with rumbling. tongue red or eyes yellow. jaundice with suppressed menses. constipation with clay colored stool.

Hydrastis: Catarrhal jaundice with sharp stitching pain. nausea and vomiting. atrophy of the liver. tongue swollen showing marks of teeth with white or yellow color coating.

Mercurius sol. A head remedy for jaundice; yellowish conjunctiva , coated tongue, constipated, pale and dry stool, increased saliva, flabby tongue, sensitiveness over the region of liver which is swollen and hard with stinging and stitching pains.

Nux vomica: With tendency of piles and constipation. bitter taste. aversion to food. throbbing pain in the region of stomach.

Podophyllum: Fullness soreness with sharp cutting pain in liver region. constipation alternate with diarrhea







Food Poisoning, Sign and symptoms, labortary Investigations, Prevention

                         Food Poisoning

       It is acute inflammatory disease of the gastrointestinal tract, caused by the ingestion of contamination food. Clinically it is characterized by short short incubation period, pain in the abdomen, vomiting or diarrhea or without fever.

     Food poisoning differ from food brone diseases. It is not transmitted through feco-oral route. 

 



The epidemiological features of food poisoning are:

1. Short Incubation period.

2. Absence of Secondary cases.

3. Short Incubation period.

4. A group of persons being affected simultaneously.

5. Similarity of signs and symptoms.

Classical of food Poisoning 

They are broadly classified into two types:

a) Non-bacterial

b) Bacterial

 Non-bacterial again 3 types :

    • Mushroom poisoning
    • Solanine poisoning
    • Chemical poisoning

  1. Mushroom poisoning : Its occurs mainly two types of fungi poisoning amentia pantherina and amentia muscaria. symptoms occur within a few minutes or hours.abdominal pain followingvomiting and may be diarrhea occur.
  2. Solanine poisoning: Solanine present in potato peeling. Symptoms occur in few hours. There will be fever, headache pain, abdomen, vomiting, diarrhea, weakness and depression.
  3. Chemical poisoning: Inorganic chemical substances resulting in poisoning  pesticides, fertilizers, arsenic ,zinc and mercury.

Bacterial food poisoning this is produced by contaminated food. they are mainly  two types: 

A. Infection type 

B. Toxin type

  • Infection type : In this type, organisms enter into body through the food and produce toxin. Incubation period is more then 8 to 12 hours.
  • Toxin type: In this type, there is already performed toxin in the food. Incubation period shorter that infection type. Its is less than 8 to 12 hours.

Investigation:

  1.  Collection of basic data such as location of the place where the affected people had   taken the food.
  2.  Interrogation\
  3.  Nature of food eaten during previous two days.
  4.  Nature of the symptoms 
  5.  Personal data e.g.. name sex address occupation and related information.
  6.  Number of deaths.
  7.  Assessment of environmental factors

Inception of kitchen 

    • a)  To assess sanitation of kitchen and dinning hall.
    • b) To known the of the food storage of food grains
    •  o know the nature of the storage of cooked foods.
    • To know the presence of rodents.
    • Interrogation and examination of food handlers and other employs regarding personal hygiene , habits and illness.

 Laboratory investigations:

      1. Vomitus and stools of the patients for culture in aerobic and aerobic medias.
      2. Sample of foods 
      3. Serological tests of the blood 
      4. Culture of the stools and urine of the food handlers and kitchen employs.
      5. Analysis of data according to the descriptive method of time, place and person distribution.
      6. case control study 
      7. Prevention and control ,measures undertaken.

Prevention and Control

-Take care of food 

  • Proper storage of food grains.
  • Proper cooking of food.
  • Protection of cooking food from rodents, insects and bare- hands.
  • Eating the food while hot.
  • Discouraging canning of food.
  • Refrigeration of remaining foods

-Taking care of food handlers 

  • They should maintain a high standard  of personal hygiene.
  • They are educated to undergo periodically medical check up.
  • They are educated about the hazards of underground coughing and coughing.
  • They must abstain from the duty, if they develop septic skin lesions, respiratory and intestinal symptoms.
  • Carriers should remain absent for the duty till they are cured bacteriologically. 


- Taking care of environment

  • Kitchen and dinning hall must be clean and dry.
  • Utensils should be thoroughly washed with soap and hot water.
  • Rodents and Insects must be controlled.










Friday, September 18, 2020

Homeopathic Medicines for Worm Manifestation

       Homeopathic Remedies Of Ascarriasis

Cina it is the head remedy for round warm, thread worm, tape worm with grinding teeth and should be given in 1X potency. the patient is restless, constant rumbling of the nose. loss of appetite or increase in appetite. it is also stops convulsions due to worms in which case it should be given in high potency, say 200 to 1000.

Teucreium for the ascarriasis in pin worms when there is much irritation in the rectum. give mother tincture or 1X.

Calcarea Carb an excellent remedy for scrofulous children, fat pale, lymphatic, hot and perspiration at night.

Stannum the administration of the remedy stupefies worm which are easily dislodged by purgatives. it has pale sunken face and eyes surrounded by blue rings, sluggish disposition, general torpor, foiled breath and passive fever. patient prefer to lie on stomach.

Terebinth. burning and crawling is anus as if worms are creeping out. it discharges round and tape worms.

Caladium is useful when worms travel over the perineum and get into vagina in little girls and tendency to excite masturbation.






                                 



Ascariasis or Roundworm 

Ascariasis or Roundworm is the Commonest and Most Widespread Worm in all Countries, Transmitted bye Feco-Orally Route Through the Soil, Most Common in Children's. It also cause Obstruction in Abdomen..

Agent Factor

Agent: Ascariasis or Round Worm resembling with Earthworm, Live in Small Intestine. It is Brown color, Female measuring 20 to 40 cm and Female Measuring 15 to 25 cm. Life Span of Round Worm is One Year. The Female lay Egg Everyday.

Life cycle: Ascariasis or Round Worm is Only One Host Human Being. The Eggs are Passed in the Feces and Develop into Rhabditiform Larvae in the Soil within About 10 to 40 days and Become Infective.

 

Reservoir Human Being is the only Reservoir of Infection.

host incidence:

age incidence: It is Maximum among Children of 2-10 years age.

sex incidence: It is equal in both Boys and Girls.

Environmental factors: The Indiscriminate Defection, Especially by the Children around the House , Poor Sewage Disposal Facilities, Maturation of Eggs.

Mode of Infection: 

1. Feco-Oral Route through the Contamination Soil.

2. From Raw Vegetables Cultivated in a Sewage Irrigated Area.

3. Eating mud Pica.

4. Drinking Fecal Contaminated Water.

5. Through Moist Mucus surface of Upper Air Passage.

6. Larvae may directly Penetrate into Blood Stream and Reach Various Viscera, Where they fail to Growth and Die.





 Clinical Features or Sign and Symptoms 

Due to Migrating Larvae:-

Pneumonia

Fever

                                        Cough

Breathlessness

                                        Urticaria rash 

Eosinophilia 

 


Due to Adult Worm:-

Malnutrition

Retarded Growth

Typhoid like Fever

Urticaria

Edema of the Face

Conjunctivitis

Irritation of Upper Respiratory Tract

Ulcer into Peritoneal Cavity

Intestinal Obstruction

Vomiting 

Sometime Suffocation at Night accidentally Enter into Respiratory Tract

Worms Enter to Appendix and Cause Appendicitis

Biliary Obstruction

Liver Abscess.

Laboratory Diagnosis or Investigations 

Administration of Barium Emulsion, being Ingested by Worms and After 6 or 7 Hours cast Strings like Shadow in the X-ray.

Microscopic Examination of Saline Emulsion of Stool for Eggs.

Indirect Evidence:

Blood Examination reveals Eosinophila

Scratch Test with Powdered Ascariasis Antigen has been found to be Positive Dermal Allergic Reaction.

Prevention And Control:

By Avoiding Indiscriminate Defecation.

By Avoiding Sanitary Latrines and Sanitary Disposal of Sewage. 

By Provision of Protected Water Supply.

By Control of House Fly. 

By Maintaining Hygiene by Trimming the Nail.. 

 

Protection: 

By The Use of Shop to Wash Hands before Eating the Food and After Using the Toilets 

By Eealth education





Thursday, September 17, 2020

Homeopathic Medicine for typhoid Fever


 Homeopathic Medicine For Typhoid Fever
 

Arsenic album : I have used the remedy with the great success in typhoid fever  in three drop doses every two hours-six doses daily. If the temperature does not abate, give sulphur 200 on e dose on empty stomach no other remedy on that day.

Phosphorus. It is used only when typhoid is complicated with pneumonia. It is also valuable in diarrhea and convalescence has set in.

Baptisia. It is indicated when typhoid is accompanied with diarrhea. The stools are of sour smell. sudden prostration. Indifference and apathy . It cuts shorts the period, If given in early stage. typhoid is usually rapid onset.

Gelsemium. Is to be given in early stage of typhoid  fever. there is no thirst, but the headache is troublesome. the patient is otherwise quite, indifferent, emotionless, drooping eyelids, trembling, chilliness, drowsiness dread of motion,prostration.

Lachesis. It has the slimier symptoms as in Baptisia, except that Lachesis patient worse after the sleep and has a tendency to hemorrhage of dark blood. he is sensitive to touch especially at the neck and wrist loss of speech. Offensive discharges, low muttering delirium, dry trembling tongue.

Abisinthium. Sleeplessness in typhoid. congestion of the brain.

         Acid phos. Prostration and weakness and exhaustion sweat after typhoid,                   especially in women.

 Stramonium. Typhoid fever with oozing of blood from the month, tongue   dry,   swollen which fills mouth, printed red like a piece of meat. 

 



Dengue Fever causes clinical features prevention

          



Dengue Fever

     it is a infectious disease, arboviral disease, caused by dengue virus, transmitted by person to person by bite of infective, female, aedes mosquito.

 

      clinically it is characteristic by high fever , headache, body ache, severe joint and muscular pains. usually it is not fatal, but under certain circumstances it can cause severe hemorrhage and profound shock, which may become fetal. it is self limiting disease. next to malaria. dengue is now the most common cause of fever in India.

Causative agent

the dengue virus, a member of flavivirus group. the virus is easily destroyed by heat and chemicals. But it survives for several years at - 70°C.

Reservoir: only case is chief reservoir. no carrier state exists.

Age incidence: Dengue fever is common in young children and adults .but children have a milder disease than adults.

Sex incidence: it is more men than among women may be because men are more exposed and woman are better clothed.

Mode of transmission: is by the bite of infective, female, aedes mosquito.

Incubation period : varies 5 to 10 days.

Clinical features of dengue fever

High fever: sudden in onset, high, continuous, associated with severe prodromal symptoms, lasts for 1 weeks.

      • internal bleeding, which can lead to black vomit and feces, or stools
      • a lower number of platelets in the blood
      • sensitive stomach
      • small blood spots under the skin
      • weak pulse 
      • damage to lymph and blood vessels 
      •  clammy skin       
      • bleeding from the mouth, gums, or nose

Dengue shock syndrome

DSS is a severe form of dengue. It can be fatal.

symptoms of mild dengue fever, the person may experience

      • intense stomach pain
      • disorientation
      • sudden hypo tension, or a fast drop in blood pressure.
      • heavy bleeding
      • regular vomiting
  • blood vessels leaking fluid
  • Without treatment, this can result in death                            Hemorrhage phenomenon: usually spontaneous. any of the following hemorrhagic manifestation may be present such as fine patchie on the extremities, axialle, face during the early febrile phase, epistaxis, gingival bleeding, homeostasis or malena.

Hepatomegaly: but not associated with jaundice.

circulatory failure: characterized by profound sweating, hypothermia, low blood pressure, narrowing of pulse- pressure, increased pulse rate, rapid and weak pulse, cold clammy skin, restlessness.



          Investigation 

Platelet count is < 1,00,000 cells/mm 3

Hematocrit value is increased by 20 percent or more.

Prevention and control of dengue fever

Clothing: Reduce the amount of skin exposed by wearing long pants, long-sleeved shirts, and socks, tucking pant legs into shoes or socks, and wearing a hat. 

Mosquito repellents: Use a repellent with at least 10 percent concentration of diethyltoluamide (DEET), or a higher concentration for longer lengths of exposure. Avoid using DEET on young children. 

Mosquito traps and nets: Nets treated with insecticide are more effective, otherwise the mosquito can bite through the net if the person is standing next to it. The insecticide will kill mosquitoes and other insects, and it will repel insects from entering the room.

Door and window screens: Structural barriers, such as screens or netting, can keep mosquito out. 

Avoid scents: Heavily scented soaps and perfumes may attract mosquito's. 

Camping gear: Treat clothes, shoes, and camping gear with permethrin, or purchase clothes that have been pretreated. 

Timing: Try to avoid being outside at dawn, dusk, and early evening. 

Stagnant water: The Aedes mosquito breeds in clean, stagnant water. Checking for and removing stagnant water can help reduce the risk.

 

         To reduce the risk of mosquitoes breeding in stagnant water:

    • turn buckets and watering cans over and store them under shelter so that water cannot accumulate
    • remove excess water from plant pot plates
    • scrub containers to remove mosquito eggs
    • loosen soil from potted plants, to prevent puddles forming on the surface
    • make sure scupper drains are not blocked and do not place potted plants and other objects over them
    • use non-perforated gully traps, install anti-mosquito valves, and cover any traps that are rarely used
    • do not place receptacles under an air-conditioning unit
    • change the water in flower vases every second day and scrub and rinse the inside of the vase
    • prevent leaves from blocking anything that may result in the accumulation of puddles or stagnant water

When camping or picnicking, choose an area that is away from still water.


Wednesday, September 16, 2020

what isTyphoid Fever? cause, site of infection, Sign and Symptoms, mode of Transmission and Investigation.

                            Typhoid Fever

         What is Typhiod Fever?

         Typhoid  Fever also known as Enteric fever.it is a Water-brone disease.Typhoid Fever is caused by Salmonella typhio bacteria and Parathypio A and B. paratyphoid Fever is caused by parathypyi A and B. unless underwire specified, enteric Fever always mean typhoid fever paratypyio is less severe. Typhoid Fever is rare in Industrialized countries. It is Most Common in India Africa and Latin America. However, It remains a serious Health Threat in the Developing World, Especially for Children.

        Causes of Typhoid fever

          Typhoid Fever Transmitted Through Contaminated Food, Water, and Vegetables usually affected School Children or through close contact with someone who's infected.

          Site of Infection

After few days of Infection, basically localized mainly in the Lymphoid Tissue Intestine result I typical Lesions in payer’s Patches and follicles these swell first then ulcerate and usually heal. Typhoid Bacteria live in Gall Bladder for month, Intestine and year and pass Intermittently in Stool less in Urine.  They are also surviving Intracellular tissue like Spleen Kidney Heart and bone marrow.They can also survive in Water Soil Food sewage ice cream etc for long period 15 to 20 days.

Sign And Symptoms

During the First Week of Typhoid Fever there is gradual Fever continues raises day by day in the “step ladder” fashion, associated with chills and severe pronominal symptoms such as Headache body ache malaise  loss of appetite, joint pains with occasional vomiting. Fever will be the range 38°C to 40°C .Then dry cough.

During Second week temperature reaches (104°F) skin is dry and hot, tongue is coated. Patients tired, abdomen is distended, Spleen is enlarged and soft, tenderness in the right iliac fossa, relative bradycardia and there often there will be transient appearance of rashes over the abdomen. There may be diarrhea with “pea-soups” stools.

During third Fever , the patient will have signs of Toxemia such as High Temperature rapid Thread Pulse, Mentally , Dull, Delirious , Disoriented, Sleepy confused, tales Irreverently, will have Face , later become stupor us develops Coma and Dies 

 After the Development of Antibodies and with or without Treatment Temperature falls. This Disease mainly Transmitted by feco-oral route.

Mode of transmission of Typhoid Fever 

·      Typhoid mainly transmitted by sewage (fecal) contaminated food vegetables through house flies.

·      This disease also transmitted through contaminated milk because water adds to milk-handler.

·      A vegetable grown in sewage farms also favors the spread of Typhoid Fever.

·      Lack of personal hygiene such as non trimming nails also favors the spread typhoid fever through fingers.

·      Pathology and pathogenesis of Typhoid Fever

·      Typhoid bacteria enter the body through the mouth , the pathogenesis enter into the blood stream, reach reticuloendothelial cells, where they multiply and after rupture of RE cells, they poured into the resulting in Bacteraemia and circulate for one week.

After circulation they settle mainly in payer’s patches of ileum spleen and gallbladder result complicated.

Ileum: - Payer’s patches are the most commonest site of involvement. These patches are all inflamed resulting ulcers with discharge of bacilli and pus into lumen of gut. The mesenteric lymph nodes are also involved.

Spleen: - There is lymphoid hyperplasia result splenomegaly. The presence of Typhoid Bacteria in spleen may act as a seed of future relapse.  

 Gallbladder:-the chronic infection of Typhoid Bacteria in the gallbladder results in Cholecystitis and Cholelithiasis (Stones).

On autolysis, the pathogens release 

     Investigations for Typhoid Fever

Ø During first week of illness -Blood for culture

Ø During second week of illness - Blood for Widal, TC (leucopenia).

Ø During third week of illness – Blood for repeat Widal test and stool and Urine for culture.

Note: Blood for Widal test will negative during first week and blood for repeat Widal during third week shows increase in antibody titre, which is confirmative. Stool and urine culture will be positive only during week Onwards.

                   Homeopathic Medicine For Typhoid Fever

Arsenic album : I have used the remedy with the great success in Typhoid Fever  in three drop doses every two hours-six doses daily. If the Temperature does not abate, give Sulphur 200 on e dose on empty Stomach no other Remedy on that day.

Phosphorus. It is used only when Typhoid is complicated with Pneumonia. It is also valuable in Diarrhea and Convalescence has set in.

Baptisia. It is indicated when Typhoid is accompanied with Diarrhea. The Stools are of sour smell. sudden prostration. Indifference and Apathy . It cuts shorts the period, If given in early stage. Typhoid is usually Rapid onset.

Gelsemium. Is to be given in early stage of Typhoid  Fever. there is no thirst, but the Headache is troublesome. the patient is otherwise Quite, Indifferent, Emotionless, drooping Eyelids, Trembling, Chilliness, Drowsiness dread of motion,Prostration.

Lachesis. It has the slimier symptoms as in Baptisia, except that Lachesis patient worse after the sleep and has a tendency to Hemorrhage of Dark Blood. he is sensitive to touch especially at the neck and wrist loss of speech. Offensive Discharges, low muttering Delirium, dry Trembling Tongue.

Abisinthium. Sleeplessness in Typhoid. congestion of the brain.

         Acid phos. Prostration and Weakness and exhaustion sweat after Typhoid,               especially in women.

 Stramonium. Typhoid Fever with Oozing of Blood from the Month, Tongue   Dry,   Swollen which fills mouth, printed red like a piece of meat. 



 

  Homeopathic remedies for Chickungunya Bryonia: Pain all over the body, but not deep in the bones. wants to lie quietly. thirst qualities ...